Publications

Pingali, Prabhu, Anaka Aiyar, Mathew Abraham and Andaleeb Rahman. "Transforming Food Systems for a Rising India". Palgrave Studies in Agricultural Economics & Food Policy, Palgrave Macmillan, (2019) (Link )  (In the Media)

Pingali, Prabhu, and Anaka Aiyar. "Food, Agriculture, and Nutrition Policy: Looking Ahead to 2050." Agriculture and Food Systems to 2050, edited by Prabhu Pinagli & Rachid Serraj. World Scientific Publishing, (2018): Chapter 18 (Link

Agarwal, Neha, Anaka Aiyar, Arpita Bhattacharjee, Joseph Cummins, Christian Gunadi, Deepak Singhania, Matthew Taylor, and Evan Wigton-Jones. "Month of birth and child height in 40 countries." Economics Letters (2017). (Link )  (DoFiles)  (In the Media)

Kathuria, Vinish, and Anaka Aiyar. "Link between Exporting and Productivity Firm Level Analysis for Indian Chemical Industry." Science Technology & Society 16.3 (2011): 309-331. (Link)

(All articles listed here without links are available on request)

 

Working Papers under review

Age-Profile Estimates of the Relationship Between Economic Growth and Child Health (with Joseph Cummins)  (Link) (DoFiles) (In the Media)

For the last several years, there has been a debate in the academic literature regarding the association between economic growth and child health in under-developed countries, with many arguing the association is strong and robust and several new papers arguing the association is weak or nonexistent. Focusing on child growth faltering as a process that unfolds over the first several years of life, we provide new evidence tracing out the relationship between macroeconomic trends and the trajectory of child growth through age 5. Using two novel regression models that each harness different kinds of within- and between-country variation, and data on over 600,000 children from 38 countries over more than 20 years, our estimates of the association are relatively small but precise, and are consistent across both estimators. We estimate that a 10% increase in GDP around the time of a child's birth is associated with a decrease in the rate of loss of HAZ of about 0.002 SD per month over the first two years of life, which generates a cumulative effect of around 0.04 SD by age 3 that then persists through age 5. Our estimates are small compared to most previously published statistically significant estimates, more precisely estimated than previous insignificant estimates, and relate to a broader population of children than previous estimates focused on dichotomous outcomes.  

 

A Macromarketing Approach to Addressing the Ethical Challenge of Market Inclusion in Base of the Pyramid Markets (With Srinivas Venugopal)

Providing low-income consumers access to transformative services such as healthcare is an ethical challenge of vital importance to marketers. However, most consumers at the base of the pyramid are excluded from the market for such transformative services because of financial constraints due to poverty. In this paper, instead of focusing on the micro-interplay between firms and consumers, we examine the macro-interplay among firms, consumers, and public policy in addressing the ethical challenge of market inclusion at the base of the pyramid. Specifically, we examine how the Vietnam government used a policy of free and universal health insurance for children under the age of six as a means of lowering affordability barriers and fostering market inclusion in the healthcare market. Overnight in 2005, all children under the age of six living anywhere in Vietnam became eligible for free health insurance. Using this policy intervention as a natural experiment, we compare market inclusion outcomes of children under the age of six with older children who were ineligible before and after the program was implemented. We show that lowering affordability barriers through public policy (1) increases access to target services, (2) increases consumers’ overall out-of-pocket spending, and (3) increases access to complementary services. By adopting a macromarketing lens, this study makes a strong case for collaboration among firms, governments, and communities in addressing the ethical challenge of system-wide market inclusion in base-of-the-pyramid markets. 

 

Unintended consequences of targeted health insurance on intra-household resource allocations (Link)

The last three decades have seen a surge in the number of government subsidized health insurance programs introduced in developing countries. However little is known about the indirect impact of these programs on households. Using variation introduced by a health insurance program targeted to children below the age of six in Vietnam, I compare changes in expenditures between households who receive insurance to those who do not. I find that beneficiary households increase spending on health and food and reduce expenditures on education. There are two explanations for the changes. The first is an increase in employment hours for adults in the households which raises total disposable income. The second is a reallocation between education and health related expenditures for children who are eligible for insurance at the expense of children who are not. 

 

other publications

Pingali, Prabhu, and Anaka Aiyar. "Diversity in Development Inter-state Differences in the India Growth Story" World Food Policy Journal 4, no. 2 (2018): 57-78 (Link) (In the Media)

Aiyar (et al). “Rashtriya Swasthya Bima Yojna (A Study of Karnataka)”;Published by the Global Development Network (2013) (Link)

Aiyar (et al), Review of Processes and Institutional Mechanisms of Programme Implementation and Service Delivery; Government of Karnataka (2010)

Aiyar, Anaka & Achala Yaareseme, “Analysis of Health Expenditures by the Government of Karnataka”, Published by the Center for Budget and Policy Studies (2010)

Jhunjhunwala, Ashok & Anaka Aiyar. “Case Study: Connecting Rural India with Broadband Wireless”, International Telecommunication Union, Development (ITU-D), 2010

Aiyar, Anaka & Poornima Vyasulu. “Reproductive and Child Health Services - How much do they cost? A Preliminary Analysis of 2 districts in Karnataka”, Publisher - Centre for Budget and Policy Studies (2007)